Patent, is a legal document granted by the government giving an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, and sell an invention for a specified number of years. Patents are also available for significant improvements on previously invented items. The goal of the patent system is to encourage inventors to advance the state of technology by awarding them special rights to benefit from their inventions. Books, movies, and works of art cannot be patented, but protection is available for such items under the law of copyright. Patent law is one branch of the larger legal field known as intellectual property, which also includes trademark and copyright law. Patent law centers round the concept of novelty and inventive step (or lack of obviousness). The right which they accord is to prevent all others, not just imitators but even independent devisors of the same idea from using the invention for the duration of the patent. The special potential of a patent is accordingly that it may be used to prevent all others from including any form of invention in their product and services. A patent thus poses serious difficulties for its competitors. This is why patents are not freely available for all industrial improvements but only what is judged to qualify as a patentable invention.
To qualify for a patent, the invention must meet three basic tests. First, it must be novel, meaning that the invention did not previously exist. Second, the invention must be non-obvious, which means that the invention must be a significant improvement to existing technology. Simple changes to previously known devices do not comprise a patentable invention. Finally, the proposed invention must be useful. Legal experts commonly interpret this to mean that no patent will be granted for inventions that can only be used for an illegal or immoral purpose. Some types of discoveries are not patentable. No one can obtain a patent on a law of nature or a scientific principle even if he or she is the first one to discover it. For example, Isaac Newton could not have obtained a patent on the laws of gravity, and Albert Einstein could not have patented his formula for relativity, E=mc2.
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While filing a patent application, provisional specifications or complete specifications can be filed by the applicant. The following is a list containing all documents that must be filed for obtaining patent registration: